Jacquard - fabric woven on a jacquard loom, allows for many colors and complex patterns
Brocade - Jacquard with raised patterns (when you run a hand across the fabric you feel the pattern)
Damask - a jacquard that's reversible (has a pleasing pattern on both sides, usually in negative colors from the other side)
Brocatelle - heavier, more tightly woven brocade. Also called brocalette.
Lampas - a brocaded fabric with a plain weave and a rib, like taffeta. Often a damask.
Imperial Brocade - brocade with metallic fibers
Matelassee - Jacquard that is woven with a shrinking fiber. After weaving, the fiber is shrunk, which creates a blistered, raised design.
Plisse - a matelasse look-alike where the blisters are chemically created.
Tapestry - a fabric woven with more than one set of yarns to create a pattern